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SEED-X: Multimodal Models with Unified Multi-granularity Comprehension and Generation

๐ŸŒˆ Abstract

The article presents SEED-X, a versatile multimodal foundation model that can serve as various AI assistants in real-world scenarios. SEED-X is enhanced with two key features: (1) the ability to comprehend images of arbitrary sizes and ratios, and (2) multi-granularity image generation capabilities, including both high-level instructional image generation and low-level image manipulation tasks. These features enable SEED-X to be effectively instruction-tuned for diverse applications across different domains.

๐Ÿ™‹ Q&A

[01] Visual Tokenization and De-tokenization

1. How does SEED-X's visual tokenization and de-tokenization work?

  • SEED-X uses a pre-trained ViT as the visual tokenizer to obtain image features.
  • In the first stage, a visual de-tokenizer is pre-trained to decode realistic images from the ViT features.
  • In the second stage, the visual de-tokenizer is further fine-tuned to take an extra condition image as input, allowing it to preserve fine-grained details of the input image for image manipulation tasks.

2. What are the benefits of using a pre-trained ViT as the visual tokenizer?

  • The ViT features serve as a bridge to decouple the training of the visual (de-)tokenizer and the multimodal language model (MLLM) in SEED-X.
  • This architecture enables effective high-quality image generation, which is a crucial capability for applying multimodal models in real-world scenarios.

[02] Dynamic Resolution Image Encoding

1. How does SEED-X handle input images of arbitrary sizes and aspect ratios?

  • SEED-X's dynamic resolution image encoding divides the input image into a grid of sub-images.
  • Extrapolatable 2D positional embeddings are added to the ViT features of each sub-image to provide the MLLM with positional information.
  • This allows the MLLM to process images of any resolution, even if the specific resolution was not encountered during training.

2. What are the advantages of dynamic resolution image encoding?

  • It enables SEED-X to handle input images of arbitrary sizes and aspect ratios, avoiding the loss of fine-grained information that can occur when resizing images to a fixed pre-defined resolution.
  • This is an important capability for real-world applications where the input images may have diverse resolutions and aspect ratios.

[03] Multimodal Pre-training and Instruction Tuning

1. What datasets were used for SEED-X's multimodal pre-training?

  • The pre-training data includes image-caption pairs, grounded image-text data, interleaved image-text data, OCR data, and pure text data.
  • The images from LAION-COCO and SAM were re-captioned to improve both image comprehension and generation.

2. How was SEED-X instruction-tuned for different real-world applications?

  • SEED-X was fine-tuned using a LoRA module on various public and in-house datasets covering image editing, text-rich QA, grounded and referencing QA, conversational interactions, slide generation, and storytelling.
  • This resulted in specialized instruction-tuned models like SEED-X-Edit, SEED-X-PPT, SEED-X-Story, and SEED-X-Try-on, each tailored for specific real-world tasks.

[04] Evaluation and Applications

1. How did SEED-X perform on multimodal benchmarks?

  • SEED-X-I achieved competitive performance on image comprehension and generation tasks compared to other state-of-the-art multimodal models.
  • It demonstrated the ability to effectively handle images of arbitrary sizes and ratios, as well as generate high-quality images aligned with the given instructions.

2. What real-world applications were showcased for SEED-X?

  • SEED-X can function as various multimodal AI assistants, such as an interactive designer generating images while illustrating creative intent, and a knowledgeable personal assistant comprehending images and providing relevant suggestions.
  • The instruction-tuned models demonstrated capabilities in high-level instructional image generation, low-level image manipulation, text-rich comprehension, mathematical reasoning, and diagram understanding.
Shared by Daniel Chen ยท
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