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Segment Anything without Supervision

๐ŸŒˆ Abstract

The article presents UnSAM, an innovative unsupervised learning method for image segmentation that can perform both interactive and whole-image segmentation without the need for human annotations. The key highlights are:

๐Ÿ™‹ Q&A

[01] Unsupervised Pseudo-Mask Generation

1. How does UnSAM generate high-quality pseudo masks without supervision?

  • UnSAM introduces a divide-and-conquer strategy to "discover" the hierarchical structure of visual scenes:
    • The divide stage leverages a top-down clustering method (CutLER) to extract initial semantic and instance-level masks.
    • The conquer stage then refines these masks using a bottom-up clustering method, iteratively merging semantically similar pixels into larger segments.
  • This divide-and-conquer pipeline generates a vast range of granularities with minimal extra cost, capturing more subtle details that are often missed by human annotators.

2. How does UnSAM's pseudo-mask generation compare to prior unsupervised methods?

  • Prior works rely solely on top-down clustering, missing the hierarchical structure present in complex images.
  • While some prior methods incorporate bottom-up clustering, they are limited in their ability to detect a full range of entity sizes.
  • UnSAM's divide-and-conquer strategy demonstrates qualitatively and quantitatively superior performance, producing high-quality, detailed pseudo-masks that better capture the hierarchical complexity of visual scenes.

[02] Model Learning and Self-Training

1. How does UnSAM leverage the generated pseudo-masks for model training?

  • UnSAM learns an image segmentation model (Mask2Former) using the pseudo-masks discovered by the divide-and-conquer strategy.
  • UnSAM then performs self-training, where high-confidence mask predictions are merged as new 'ground-truth' annotations to further enhance the model's performance.

2. How does UnSAM enable promptable image segmentation?

  • UnSAM utilizes Semantic-SAM as the base model for predicting multiple granularity levels of masks from a single click prompt.
  • During training, UnSAM randomly samples points within the mask to simulate user clicks.

[03] Improving Supervised SAM with Unsupervised Segmentation

1. How does UnSAM+ leverage both supervised and unsupervised annotations?

  • UnSAM+ merges SA-1B's ground-truth masks with UnSAM's unsupervised segmentation masks based on IoU.
  • This fusion approach leverages the strengths of both supervised and unsupervised annotations, addressing the limitations of human-annotated datasets while enriching the diversity and comprehensiveness of the training data.

2. How does UnSAM+ outperform the supervised SAM model?

  • UnSAM+ surpasses SAM's Average Recall by over 6.7% and Average Precision by 3.9% on the SA-1B dataset.
  • UnSAM+ can often discover entities missed by SAM, particularly small entities and fine-grained details that human annotators tend to overlook.

[04] Experimental Results

1. How does UnSAM perform compared to the state-of-the-art unsupervised methods?

  • UnSAM outperforms the previous state-of-the-art unsupervised methods by a significant margin of 11% in terms of Average Recall across various evaluation datasets.
  • On datasets focused on part-level segmentation, such as PartImageNet and PACO, UnSAM exceeds the state-of-the-art by 16.6% and 12.6%, respectively.

2. How does UnSAM's performance compare to the supervised SAM model?

  • Even when trained with only 1% of the SA-1B dataset and a smaller backbone, UnSAM achieves performance very close to the fully-supervised SAM model.
  • On certain datasets, UnSAM surpasses SAM's performance, demonstrating its ability to capture details that are often missed by human annotators.
Shared by Daniel Chen ยท
ยฉ 2024 NewMotor Inc.