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OpenAI transcribed over a million hours of YouTube videos to train GPT-4

๐ŸŒˆ Abstract

The article discusses the challenges AI companies are facing in gathering high-quality training data, and the ways they have dealt with this issue, which often involve using copyrighted content without permission.

๐Ÿ™‹ Q&A

[01] Challenges in Gathering Training Data

1. What are the key challenges AI companies are facing in gathering high-quality training data?

  • AI companies are running into a wall when it comes to gathering high-quality training data for their models
  • As companies like OpenAI, Google, and Meta have exhausted supplies of useful data, they have resorted to using copyrighted content without permission, such as:
    • Transcribing over a million hours of YouTube videos to train GPT-4
    • Using computer code from Github, chess move databases, and schoolwork content from Quizlet
    • Gathering transcripts from YouTube

2. How have companies tried to address the training data shortage?

  • OpenAI developed its Whisper audio transcription model to transcribe YouTube videos and use that data to train GPT-4
  • Companies have discussed options like:
    • Paying for book licenses or buying a large publisher outright
    • Training models on "synthetic" data created by their own models
    • Using "curriculum learning" to feed models high-quality data in an ordered fashion

3. What are the legal and ethical concerns with the approaches companies have taken?

  • Using copyrighted content without permission falls into a "hazy gray area" of AI copyright law
  • Google, YouTube, and others have stated that unauthorized scraping or downloading of their content is prohibited by their terms of service
  • Companies are wrestling with quickly-evaporating training data for their models, and may be outpacing new content creation by 2028

[02] Company Responses

1. How have different companies responded to the training data shortage?

  • OpenAI reportedly developed Whisper to transcribe YouTube videos, which it knew was legally questionable but believed to be fair use
  • Google has also gathered transcripts from YouTube, but says it has done so in accordance with its agreements with YouTube creators
  • Meta has discussed its unpermitted use of copyrighted works while trying to catch up to OpenAI

2. What actions have companies taken to expand their use of consumer data?

  • Google's legal department asked the company's privacy team to tweak its policy language to expand what it could do with consumer data, such as its office tools like Google Docs
  • Meta was apparently limited in the ways it could use consumer data by privacy-focused changes it made in the wake of the Cambridge Analytica scandal
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