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How To Solve LLM Hallucinations

๐ŸŒˆ Abstract

The article discusses the problem of hallucinations in large language models (LLMs) and a new approach called "Memory Tuning" developed by the startup Lamini to address this issue. It covers the following key points:

๐Ÿ™‹ Q&A

[01] Large Language Models and Hallucinations

1. What is the problem of hallucinations in LLMs?

  • LLMs can generate output that contains incorrect or fabricated information, known as "hallucinations".
  • Hallucinations can occur due to:
    • Lack of factual knowledge in the training data
    • Models being designed to provide an answer, even if it is incorrect
    • Embedding similar concepts together in the model's representation space

2. What are some existing approaches to address hallucinations?

  • Domain-specific models: Trained only on data relevant to a specific domain, but can still have issues with contextual relationships.
  • Co-prompting: Providing additional context data along with the user prompt, but computationally expensive.
  • Fine-tuning: Starting with a general model and fine-tuning on curated data, but may not be accurate enough for some use cases.
  • Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG): Using a validated database to assist in generating output, but performance can vary.
  • Mixture of Experts (MoE) models: Using multiple smaller, specialized models to route information to the most relevant expert.

[02] Lamini's Memory Tuning Approach

1. What is Lamini's "Memory Tuning" approach?

  • Lamini has developed a technique called "Memory Tuning" that can reduce hallucinations by up to 95%.
  • It involves a "Mixture of Memory Experts" (MoME) approach, where each expert is tuned to a specific curated dataset at a very high rate (100x faster than regular fine-tuning).
  • This allows the model to embed hard facts and specific domain knowledge while maintaining general reasoning capabilities.

2. How does Lamini's approach differ from conventional ML thinking?

  • Conventional ML thinking is often hesitant to "overfit" data, as it was believed to degrade the model's general performance.
  • However, Lamini's approach shows that the computational cost of this targeted tuning is much lower than regular fine-tuning, and has a negligible effect on the model's general reasoning.

3. What are the potential implications of Lamini's approach on computer architecture?

  • The article suggests that Lamini's approach could lead to a shift in computer architecture, similar to the impact of transformers on computational requirements.
  • The inference computational profile of a Lamini-tuned model may be substantially different from a standard model, potentially requiring changes in hardware design to optimize performance.
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