# Number of Distances Separating Points Has a New Bound | Quanta Magazine

## 🌈 Abstract

The article discusses the mathematical problem of determining the number of distinct distances between a set of points in a plane or higher-dimensional space. It explores how the geometry and arrangement of the points affects the size of the "distance set" - the set of unique distances between the points. The article covers the historical development of this problem, including conjectures by mathematicians like Paul Erdős and Kenneth Falconer, and recent advances in proving relationships between the fractal dimension of the point set and the measure of the distance set.

## 🙋 Q&A

### [01] Introduction

**1. What happens when three points are scattered in a plane and the distances between them are measured?**

- In most cases, three different distances will be found between the three points.
- However, if the three points are arranged in an equilateral triangle, then all the distances between them will be the same.

**2. What is the smallest number of distances that can be engineered between points in a plane?**

- The smallest number of distinct distances is 2, which can be achieved by arranging the points in a square, with the distances being the edges and diagonals of the square.

**3. How can a single unique distance be achieved between a set of four points?**

- By lifting one of the points off the plane to create a pyramid, where each side of the pyramid is an equilateral triangle, all four points will be separated by the same distance, which is the length of one side of the triangle.

**4. How do the patterns of distances change as the number of points increases?**

- With 100 randomly scattered points in a plane, there will likely be 4,950 distinct pairwise distances.
- Arranging the 100 points in a flat, square grid reduces the number of distinct distances to just 50.
- Lifting the points into a three-dimensional grid can reduce the number of distinct distances even further.

### [02] Erdős Conjecture and Falconer's Conjecture

**1. What was the Erdős conjecture regarding the size of the distance set?**

- In 1946, Paul Erdős conjectured that for large numbers of points, the distance set (the list of distinct distances) cannot be smaller than what is obtained when the points are arranged in a grid.

**2. What is Falconer's conjecture regarding the relationship between the fractal dimension of a set of points and the measure of its distance set?**

- Falconer's 1985 conjecture posits that for an infinite set of points, if the fractal dimension of the set is greater than d/2 (where d is the dimension of the space), then the measure of the distance set will be greater than 0.

**3. What progress has been made in proving Falconer's conjecture?**

- In two dimensions, Falconer proved that any set of points with fractal dimension greater than 1.5 has a distance set with nonzero measure.
- In 2018, it was shown that the conjecture holds in two dimensions for all sets with fractal dimension greater than 5/4.
- The latest result, proved in 2022, shows that in higher dimensions, the threshold for ensuring a distance set with nonzero measure is a little smaller than d/2 + 1/4.

### [03] Significance and Future Directions

**1. How have the efforts to solve the problem of distances between points influenced other areas of mathematics?**

- The problem has served as a "playground" for developing sophisticated techniques in harmonic analysis, which have applications in number theory, physics, and other fields.

**2. What is the current state of the Falconer conjecture, and what are the prospects for a full resolution?**

- While the latest result has closed only half of the gap left by Falconer's original conjecture, mathematicians see the recent progress as evidence that the full conjecture may finally be within reach.
- The problem continues to be used as a testing ground for mathematicians' most advanced tools, and further breakthroughs are expected.